Title: Comparison of Completed Suicides of an Unknown Cause by Geographical Regions in Turkey

Abstract:Background: It is observed that the crude suicide rate has increased approximately 2.5 times in the years between 1975 and 2019 in Turkey, with suicides of an unknown cause accounting for a significant part among completed suicides. However, very limited information is available about completed suicide of an unknown cause. Objective: This study was conducted to compare completed suicides of an unknown cause by geographical regions in Turkey. Methods: In this study, suicide statistics of the Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT) for the years between 1975 and 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. The distribution of completed suicides of an unknown cause was examined by geographical regions for the specified period of 45 years. Data were evaluated by numbers, percentages, and mean and standard deviation. RMANOVA, Duncan�s multiple comparison test, and Bonferroni�s multiple comparison test were used.Results: The review of the total number of suicide cases per 100,000 population in seven geographical regions of Turkey in a period of 45 years reveals that suicides were most common in the Aegean region followed by the Eastern Anatolia, Mediterranean, Central Anatolia, Black Sea, Marmara, and Southeastern Anatolia regions, respectively. However, the examination of suicides of an unknown cause reveals that the rates were the highest in the Eastern Anatolia region, which was followed by the Aegean, Black Sea, Mediterranean, Southeastern Anatolia, and Marmara regions, respectively in the decreasing order of frequency.Conclusion: This study has shown that suicides of an unknown cause constituted the most significant category among completed suicides by the cause in Turkey in the years between 1975 and 2019. It has been found out that suicides of an unknown cause in Turkey were most common in the Eastern Anatolia region and least common in the Marmara region.

Title: Repurposing drugs for the treatment of COVID-19: Opportunities and Challenges

Abstract:The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) recently has become fatal pandemic in the past hundred years. The ACE2 is a major entry receptor for causative coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and expressed in various extrapulmonary tissues, hence, direct viral tissue damage has been proposed a possible mechanism of injury. Since pandemic started, various already existed drugs were approved as first-line treatment for COVID-19 patients. Although, several already existing drugs, including tocilizumab, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, baricitinib, and arbidol have shown great potential for COVID-19 management by inhibiting SARS-CoV-2, however, various studies have discouraged their use in the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Here, we review the pathophysiology and transmission of COVID-19, multi-organ dysfunction caused by SARS-CoV-2, efficacy and safety of major repurposed drugs that have been initially proposed or already being investigated in clinical trials to treat COVID-19 patients.

Title: The Validity of Catalase Test for the Early Detection of UTIs

Abstract:Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are inflammatory urinary tract infections caused by an unusual pathogen. The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of catalase test in the early diagnosis of UTIs. Methodology: The study involved 201 patients suspected to be infected with UTI and admitted to Near East Hospital between March and September 2020. The urine samples of the patients were microscopically analyzed after testing for catalase, nitrite and leukocyte esterase. Moreover, urine samples were inoculated onto blood agar and eosin methylene blue agar. Conventional microbiological techniques and vitek2 automated identification system were used for bacterial identification. Results: Total participants represented 87 (43.3%) male and 114 (56.7%) female. The bacterial growth was observed in 37 (18.4 %) specimens. Among them, 29 (78%) was tested positive for catalase activity, leucocyte esterase and nitrite tests. Erythrocyte strip positivity and catalase test positivity were 65 (78.0%), while leukocyte positivity in patients with cystitis were 26 (24.1 %). The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the catalase test were 90.6 %, 33.7 %, 95%, and 20.5 %, respectively, compared to the catalase test results of the culture test. Conclusion: Catalase test is a simple, fast, and low-cost test that detects all positive results. It would be an effective alternative screening test for detecting bacteriuria or pyuria. However, catalase test is very sensitive but not very specific for early detection of UTI.

Title: Extraction of Compound Reaction Relations Based on Graph Neural Network

Abstract:In the field of drug discovery, accurately predicting the interaction between drug entities can reduce the risk of patients in clinical treatment. Meanwhile, accurate prediction of compound entity relations can also improve the efficiency of drug development. Aiming at the shortcomings in the extraction model of chemical entity reaction relations, we apply graph convolutional neural network to the task of chemical reaction relation extraction, and propose a multi-view algorithm to extract compound reaction relation features. The algorithm considers not only the internal structure feature information of compound entities, but also takes into account the interactive graph information between entities. Thus, it can fully mine the structure feature information in the graph. Experimental results show that the proposed method has higher accuracy than the state-of-the-art methods.

Title: An Recommendation Algorithm Based on Joint Convolution Matrix Factorization in Location Social Networks

Abstract:Location-based social network (LBSN) is a new type of social network. Each user can not only establish friendships with other users, but also share their own events in different places by checking in. There is a large amount of auxiliary information in the location social networks, such as comment information, social information, geographic information, and so on. A large amount of auxiliary information has unique spatiotemporal characteristics, which can be used to alleviate the problems of cold start and data sparseness of the recommendation system. In this paper, we propose a joint convolution matrix factorization method that considers time relations, referred to as CMF-J. In a unified probabilistic matrix factorization recommendation framework, the method jointly considers the related comments of items, items relationships, users social influence and users comments. And integrates the processing results of the convolutional neural network to perform rating prediction. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments on the dataset Yelp. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of CMF-J compared to several state-of-the-art methods in the two performance indicators of Root Mean Square Error and Mean Absolute Error.

Title: A Bibliometric Analysis of Publications on Neural Tube Defects during 1980-2020

Abstract:BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to conduct a bibliometric analysis of publications for neural tube defects (NTD) between 1980 and 2020.\nMETHODS: We identified and collected 3353 publications on NTD in the Web of Science database between 1980 and 2020. The keywords \"neural tube defects\" were used to obtain data.\nRESULTS: The majority of publications on NTD were original articles (55.47%). The leading country in terms of the number of NTD publications was the United States (USA) (35.82%) and the leading country in terms of productivity was Canada (67.5). The author who published the most NTD articles was Shaw GM of Stanford University. The Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology (5.07%) was the journal with the highest number of NTD publications. The most cited publication was the article by Czeizel et al. with 2244 citations. Among the keywords used in the literature, the most common one was \"neural tube defects\". Worldwide, the 10 countries with the strongest ties in terms of NTD broadcasting were the USA, United Kingdom, China, Canada, Ireland, the Netherlands, Italy, France, Germany and Hungary, respectively.\nCONCLUSIONS: The leading country in terms of NTD publications is the USA, the leading institution is University of London, the leading journal was Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology, the leading author is Shaw GM, and the leading article is ‘Prevention of the First Occurrence of Neural-Tube Defects by Periconceptional Vitamin Supplementation’.

Title: X and Y Generation Nurses


Title: Association of MDR1 polymorphisms with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome susceptibility

Abstract:Background: This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between association of multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) gene polymorphisms and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) susceptibility. \nMethods: Association investigations were identified and included from the PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase databases on May 1, 2020, and eligible investigations were analyzed by meta-analysis. Odds ratios (OR) were used to express the dichotomous data, and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) were also calculated. \nResults: In this meta-analysis, we did not find the association of MDR1 C1236T (rs1128503), C3435T (rs1045642), G2677T/A (rs2032582) gene polymorphisms with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome susceptibility. Furthermore, the association of MDR1 C1236T (rs1128503), C3435T (rs1045642), G2677T/A (rs2032582) gene polymorphisms with SRNS or SSNS susceptibility was also not found. Interestingly, the MDR1 C1236T (rs1128503) gene polymorphism was associated with the susceptibility of SSNS developing into SRNS. However, this association for C3435T (rs1045642) and G2677T/A (rs2032582) gene polymorphisms was not found. \nConclusion: MDR1 C1236T (rs1128503) gene polymorphism was associated with the susceptibility of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome developing into steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

Title: A Promoter of Violence or a Humanist Ethical Philosopher?: Appraising Frantz Fanon

Abstract:Frantz Fanon was inter alia, a political philosopher from Martinique. He was considered by some to be a political radical and an avid Pan-Africanist and Marxist humanist. He immersed himself in colonization per se, and especially in its often dire consequences for peoples in the human, social, and cultural spheres. He was a significant persona because of the intelligence of his reproaches of colonialism based on original and often deep philosophical thinking. In a work entitled Black Skin, White Masks, Fanon psychoanalyzed burdened Black people who were regarded by many colonizers as lesser beings in a world subjugated by Whites from predominantly European colonizing powers. He stressed the notion of Black Consciousness and how orthodox African nationalism was failing Africans in their quest for liberation. He made a point of learning how Blacks circumnavigated the White world through their acts of White-ness in an effort to retain a sense of worth. In another of his literary works, The Wretched of the Earth (1961) mistranslated from Les Damnés de la Terre, he elucidated on the notion that violence and the armed struggle through liberation movements, indeed had a key role to play in liberating peoples from colonization and oppression, and argued that antiblack racism was anathema. For such ideas, he has often been maligned as a philosopher. Some considered him to be unethical, on the argument that he was a proponent of violence. Such thinking negates the legitimacy of political violence at times in history. This brief study seeks to rectify the idea that he was a misguided and violent man rather than a conscious and sensitive human being, rightly seeking justice, egalitarianism and true liberation for colonized peoples.

Title: Eeffectiveness of Virtual Reality Simulation as learning strategy on Acquisition of Intramuscular Injection Skill and Anxiety Level among Nursing Students

Abstract:Background: In order to narrow the gap between theory and practice in medical field as general, and nursing field as especially, nurse educators and faculties should use innovative and beneficial learning strategies to facilitate the transition from novice practitioner to professional nurse, and ensuring patient safety.\nAim: Design and develop virtual reality simulation software related to intramuscular injection skill in nursing education and determine effectiveness of virtual reality simulation as learning strategy on acquisition skill and anxiety level. \nMethod: A quasi-experimental design, First-year nursing students (n=66) at Near East University were conducted, and divided into experimental and control groups. \nResults: There is significant difference between both groups in pre-test and before practice on voluntary individual in performance psychomotor skills scores, and in a pre-test in state anxiety level, and significantly long period time in minute that mean was higher in experimental group. \nConclusion: Virtual reality simulation is a useful learning strategy in acquisition psychomotor skills requiring the ordering of skill steps in teaching alongside traditional laboratory environment, it increases students\' performance, and leads to less time spent, and decreases errors that happen during training. This study was recommended nurse educators and faculties inserting innovative teaching-learning strategies in various practical medical and nursing skills that providing safe environment