Abstract:Acid dissociation constant (pKa) values of newly synthesized 21 coumarin derivatives were determined by UV?VIS spectrophotometry and/or potentiometric methods in this study and the obtained values were compared with theoretical pKa values. The studied compounds were of two kinds; compounds in one group contained piperazine ring whereas others contained piperidine ring. As a result of the observations, reaction schemes for both piperazine and piperidine derivatives were proposed. The agreement between the experimentally and theoretically determined pKa values was significant for most of the compounds and for the others a correlation between their substituents and unexpected behavior is made based on the differences in their acidities. Anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds were related with their acidity and structures. Even though a clear conclusion could not be made on the anti-inflammatory effect-structure relationship for the studied compounds, aryl-substituted piperazine heterocycle bearing compounds was suggested for the development of new drug candidates with possible anti-inflammatory effects
Abstract:Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a significant health issue in many countries around the world. Several studies have reported that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The present investigation aimed to determine the effect of oral supplementation with vitamin D and calcium on the levels of glucose, glycogen, and insulin in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ).\nMaterials and Methods: The induction of diabetes in the rats was achieved through intraperitoneal injection of STZ. The diabetic rats were assembled into three groups. The first group (n=6) served as a diabetic control (untreated), the second group (n=10) received oral vitamin D (2000 IU/day) supplementation with calcium (500 mg/kg/day), and the third group (n=9) was treated with insulin. Blood glucose was determined weekly for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, the levels of insulin and vitamin D were measured in the serum of all groups. The glycogen content was measured in the liver tissues of all groups. \nResults: The blood glucose levels were significantly lower in STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with vitamin D and calcium compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Twenty-eight days of treatment with vitamin D combined with calcium improved the glycogen contents in the livers of diabetic rats and increased the serum insulin levels.\nConclusion: Our data shows that vitamin D combined with calcium positively impacted STZ-induced diabetic rats by decreasing the level of blood glucose, enhancing glycogen synthesis, and increasing the insulin level.
Abstract:Purpose: COVID-19 has become a global epidemic with more than 6 million active cases worldwide. This is a huge number even when the active cases have started to decrease in most of the developed world and the threat is looming of a second wave. The question is where the second wave would come from? Method: Our hypothesis is that the answer lies in the COVID-19 outliers. In most epidemiological and clinical studies, focus is on the patients who represent the majority population however, there is every likelihood that re-emergence of the virus will be the from the cases that are unique and not following the norm. Results and Conclusion: This may allow us to understand the behavior of SARS-CoV-2 better and allow us to hypothesize better about its biology. This paper analyzes 6 such COVID-19 patients reported by different regional Centers for Disease Control in China, which should be considered with regards to further spread and developing effective control of SARS-CoV2 epidemic.
Abstract:Cancer stem cells are the key drivers of tumor progression and therapy resistance owing to unique properties including self-renewal and differentiation. A growing body of evidences suggests that monotherapies have been failed to eradicate CSCs due to inability of simultaneous targeting of dual or multiple regulatory pathways of CSCs. Therefore, idea of combination therapies has been emerged as a powerful approach to eliminate CSCs. This review highlights molecular mechanism of CSCs-mediated therapy resistance emphasizes on need of combination therapies. Herein, we also summarize recent insights into different types of anti-CSCs combination therapies, with hope that these findings may guide future CSCs research for the development of promising strategies to eradicate CSCs in patients
Abstract:Natural therapies have been based on many beneficial herbal medicinal plants as they provoke rarer side effects, inexpensive and highly effective. During their field collection of medicinal plants, some plants are resembling with each other morphologically. Therefore, usually, misidentification occurs within these plants and get interchanged with the original species. The raw material used in herbal products should be untainted and this is a prior step to certify material in processing. All type of adulteration problem badly affects the drug dealer at every stage whether it is local, national or at a global level. Hence, this study purposed to inaugurate some validation methods for identification substitutions present in medicinal plant species. These methods suggested minimizing the problem of quality assurance of herbal drugs, provided a base for characterization and authentication of advertised medicinal plants. DNA from leaves of selected plants from south Punjab, Pakistan was isolated, PCR was done by matK and rbcl universal primers and sequencing was done. Two plants were successfully identified as Tinospora cordifolia and Calotropis procera. These plants have a very good history to be used in medicine in the sub-continent since ancient times.
Abstract:Introduction: Stoma is a surgical creation of an opening in the abdomen involving parts of either the gastrointestinal or urinary tract. Objectives of the study: The aim of conducting this survey is to elucidate effect of stoma over Qol (Quality of life) in Muslim patients and its determinants with respect to religious patterns. Material and methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Dalian Medical University and Leady Reading Hospital, Sargodha during March 2019 to March 2020. We include 100 patients with colostomy or ileostomy, permanent or temporary performed in department of General Surgery, in year 2019. The data was collected through questionnaire quality of life scale for muslim stoma patients. The data was collected with the permission of ethical committee of hospital. All participants were recruited on a voluntary basis. Results: The data was collected from 100 patients. There were 88 males and 12 females. Majority of patients (n=85) had ileostomy while 15 patients had colostomy. All ileostomies were temporary loop ileostomies. Majority of colostomies were also loop colostomies except three cases of end colostomy for malignant disease. Majority (80 %) of stomas were due to infective causes, while 15 were for trauma and 10 due to malignant disease. Out of 15 stomas made for malignant disease, 3 were permanent stomas. Majority of older patients had permanent stoma. Majority of patients were married. Conclusion: It is concluded that holistic approach is required when counselling Muslim patients who require stoma?forming surgery to improve their post?operative HRQoL and maintain their participation in religious and spiritual aspects of life.
Abstract:Coronaviruses are a family of viruses known to infect mammals and birds, belonging to the family Coronaviridae. Before the emergence of COVID-19, there were six different coronaviruses known to infect humans, four of which cause a mild common cold-type illness. The main objective of the study is to review the role of dietary supplements in treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19. This study was conducted using a systematic search on Google scholar, Pubmed and Web of science published until 20th June 2020. The cited references of retrieved articles and previous reviews were also manually checked to identify any additional eligible studies. All citations were imported into a bibliographic database and duplicates were removed. Title, abstract and then full-text of all articles were screened for eligibility. Vitamin D has important functions beyond those of calcium and bone metabolism that include modulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. At least 1 billion people globally have vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency makes our population more vulnerable and more susceptible to develop infectious diseases especially respiratory infections. It is concluded that the research has yet not proved that vitamin D is effective against the novel Corona virus, it does show that vitamin D helps to protect against respiratory tract infections.
Abstract:in developed countries. Following this ratio, the need for comorbidities like diabetes, cholesterol, and hypertension, and fertility therapies are becoming common and the reason behind negative fetal and maternal outcomes. This review paper is based upon a detailed study of how advanced maternal age has negative consequences.In the recent century, the ratio of advanced maternal age women is rapidly increasing, especially
Abstract:Abstract:\nThis focused review is designed to analyze the myocardial injury associated with COVID-19. We aim to gather relevant information conducted in different parts of the world that describes the forementioned relationship.\n\nMethodology: For this study, a total 10 of studies were included. We searched electronic articles, from November 2019 to January 2021, on PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, online Willey library, and Science Direct websites by using keywords related to myocardial infraction and Corona virus.\n\nResults: We observed the severity of myocardial injury in COVID patients and found elevated levels of troponin as a result of myocardial inflammation. Also, we selected studies that compared the myocardial injury events before COVID and during the COVID period. During analysis, we observed that 7-40% of researchers used the same definition of myocardial injury which they analyze with echocardiographic and electrocardiographic imaging. Myocardial injury is also responsible for high complications which may eventually result in an increased mortality rate of patients during hospital admission. Studies reflects a great association between the great amount of cardiac troponin and infectious biomarkers especially with D dimer, and other inflammatory responses including the amount of ferritin, IL-6, C-reactive protein of Covid patients. Among many patients, severe hypoxemia was observed which need mechanical ventilation.\nConclusion: We conclude that the SARS- CoV-2 infection has huge impact on cardiovascular system. We conclude that serum troponin elevations and ventricular dysfunctions are the major reasons for myocardial infarction. Other factors like comorbidities also play a vital role in MI injury. Asymptomatic MI leads to a high mortality rate which needs to be monitored at the initial stage of the disease.
Abstract:Introduction: Hyperuricemia is associated strongly with the development of renal disease and progression. Medical therapy decreases serum uric acid levels by inhibiting the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Objective of the study: To evaluate correlation of mean uric acid level and Renal Resistive Index in normoglycemic and normotensive adult subjects. Material and methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Allied hospital, Faisalabad, during 31-10-2018 to 30-04-2019. One hundred (n=100) non-diabetic, non-hypertensive, recently diagnosed hyperuricemic otherwise healthy subjects irrespective of gender between age 20-40 years were included in the study. After complete history taking and full physical examination laboratory testing including: serum uric acid, serum creatinine to exclude renal decompensation patients, fasting blood sugar and 2 h post prandial were advised. Results: 55.0% (n=55) of patients were males with the mean age of 33.40 years ± 3.85 SD and 45.0% (n=45) of patients were females with mean age of 34.67 years ± 3.33 SD. Cumulative mean age was 33.97 years ± 3.66 SD. The mean value of the RI of the renal arterial vasculature was 0.765 ± 0.0155 SD. The maximum, minimum and range values of the RI were 0.79, 0.74, and 0.04 respectively. The mean serum uric acid value found to be 10.947±0.562 SD. The maximum, minimum and range values of the RI were 0.79, 0.74 and 0.05 respectively. Correlation between the serum uric acid and renal arterial RI prior to the medical therapy and 3 weeks after therapy. A positive correlation was found between both values with a Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.103 and p-value 0.308. Conclusions: It is concluded that that medical treatment of hyperuricemia results in lowering of serum uric acid which correlates with the decrease in renal resistive index.